Learning Theory, Learning Model, Instruction Design

Teori Pembelajaran, Model Pembelajaran, dan Desain Pengajaran

Learning theory/ theory of learning, Model of Learning

Teori belajar yang paling berpengaruh adalah :

1. Behaviourism

2. Cognitive psychology

3. Constructivism

4. Social learning theory

5. Socio-constructivism

6. Experiential learning

7. Multiple intelligences

8. Situated learning theory and community of practice

9. 21st century learning or skills

(diakses pertama tanggal 20/9/2015) lebih lengkapnya lihat di sini : http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/strengthening-education-systems/quality-framework/technical-notes/influential-theories-of-learning/)

Namun ada juga yang menyebut teori belajar ini sebagai paradigm yang mencakup (http://www.learning-theories.com/):

1. behaviorism:

a. classical conditioning (Pavlov)

b. GOMS model (card.Moran, Newell)

c. Operant Conditioning (skinner)

d. Social Learning Theory (Bandura)

2. cognitivism

a. Teori Atribusi (Weiner)

b. Cognitive Load Theory/ teori beban kognisi (Sweller).

c. Teori elaborasi ( Reigeluth)

d. Teori konteks fungsional ( Sticht)

e. Teori Gestalt (Von Ehrenfels)

f. Kognisi situasi/ Situated Cognition (Brown, Collins & Duguid)

g. Teori tahapan perkembangan kognisi (Piaget)

3. Constructivism, Social, Situational Theories:

a. Anchored Instruction (Bransford)

b. Cognitive Apprentichip (Collin et al)

c. Communities of practice ( Lave dan Wenger)

d. Connectivsm (Siemen, Downes)

e. Discovery learning ( Bruner)

f. Multiliteracies (New London Group)

g. Semiotic (deSaussure, Barthes, Bakhtin)

h. Teori perkembangan social/Social development theory (Vygotsky)

i. Problem-Based Learning

j. Situated Learning (Lave)

4. design-Based dan Models (precristive)

a. desain pengajaran model ADDIE/ADDIE Model of instruction design

b. ARCS model of motivational design (Keller)

c. Elaboratiion theory (Reigeluth)

d. Learner-Centered Design (Soloway, Guzdian, Hay)

e. Multimodality (Kress)

5. humanism dan motivational teori

a. ARCS model mengenai desain motivasi (Keller)

b. Kecerdasan emosi/Emotional Intelligence (Goleman)

c. Experiential Learning (Kolb) (lihat bawah)

d. Flow (Csikszentmihalyi)

e. Grit (Dcukworth, Matthews, Kelly, Peterson)

f. Intrinsically Motivating Instruction/pengajaran motivasi intrinsic (Malone)

g. tingkat kebutuhan dari Maslow/Hierarchy of needs (Maslow)

h. teori determinasi diri/self-determination theory (Deci dan Ryan)

6. 21st century skills

Descriptive and Meta teori:

a. Activity Theory (Vygotsky, Leont”ev, Luria, ENgstrom)

b. Actor-network theory (latour, Callon)

c. Taksonomi Bloom (Bloom)

d. Kognisi distribusi (Hutchins)

e. Analisa jaringan social/Social Network Analysis (Scott, Prell)

Teori identitas/ Identity Theory:

a. Tahap perkembangan Erikson (Erikson)

b. Teori Status identitas (Marcia)

c. Self-Theori: Entity and Incremental Theory (Dweck)

Teori dan Model lainnya:

a. Teori Afordan (Gibson)

b. Kecerdasan Mejemuk (Gardner)

d. Kecakapan abad 21 (P21 dan lainnya)

sebagai tambahan dari learning theory ini juga bisa dilihat di sini : http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/index.html

Learning concepts:

Konsep belajar misalnya (anxiety/kecemasan, arousal, attention, attitudes, cognitive style, creativity, grit and persistence, imagery, learning strait, mastery, memory, mental model dan lainnya, lebih lanjut bisa dilihat di sini:( diakses 20/9/2015)

http://www.instructionaldesign.org/concepts/index.html

Learning domain

http://www.instructionaldesign.org/domains/index.html

Perbandingan antara berbagai teori belajar mengenai orentasinya (diakses 20/9/2015, lebih lanjut dapat dilihat di: http://infed.org/mobi/learning-theory-models-product-and-process/ ).

Four orientations to learning (after Merriam and Caffarella 1991: 138)

Aspect Behaviourist

(http://infed.org/mobi/the-behaviourist-orientation-to-learning/)

Cognitivist

(http://infed.org/mobi/the-cognitive-orientation-to-learning/)

Humanist

(http://infed.org/mobi/humanistic-orientations-to-learning/)

Social and situational

(http://infed.org/mobi/the-socialsituational-orientation-to-learning/)

Learning theorists Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Guthrie, Hull, Tolman, Skinner Koffka, Kohler, Lewin, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne Maslow, Rogers Bandura, Lave and Wenger, Salomon
View of the learning process Change in behaviour Internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory, perception A personal act to fulfil potential. Interaction /observation in social contexts. Movement from the periphery to the centre of a community of practice
Locus of learning Stimuli in external environment Internal cognitive structuring Affective and cognitive needs Learning is in relationship between people and environment.
Purpose in education Produce behavioural change in desired direction Develop capacity and skills to learn better Become self-actualized, autonomous Full participation in communities of practice and utilization of resources
Educator’s role Arranges environment to elicit desired response Structures content of learning activity Facilitates development of the whole person Works to establish communities of practice in which conversation and participation can occur.
Manifestations in adult learning Behavioural objectivesCompetency -based education

Skill development and training

Cognitive developmentIntelligence, learning and memory as function of age

Learning how to learn

AndragogySelf-directed learning SocializationSocial participation

Associationalism

Conversation

Learning model

1. Diantara model belajar yang juga banyak dipergunakan adalah “experiential Learning” dari Kolb (1984). Model ini membutuhkan empat (4) kecakapan belajar yakni 1) pengalaman konkret ketika berhadapan dengan sesuatu yang baru, 2) observasi/pengamatan yang bersifat refelktif untuk melihat kontek khusus dari perpektif yang berbeda untuk menangkap maknanya, 3) konseptualisasi abstrak untuk menganalisa dan mengintegrasikan ide baru dan membuat konsep, 4) membuat konklusi logis dengan melakukan refleksi pada pengalaman baru serta percobaan aktif untuk penguatan kembali dengan lingkungan menggunakan pembelajaran baru. (lebih lanjut lihat di siniL http://edtechreview.in/research/2022-learning-models-learning-theories. Diakses 20/9/2015)

Kegiatan pembelajar dengan model Kolb ini diantaranya adalah seperti ini:

2. model lainnya yang juga banyak dipergunakan adalah model Schulman (2002) yang menggunakna enam (6) langkah proses belajar seperti berikut ini

Instructional Design (N):

The process
by which instruction is improved
through the analysis of learning needs
and systematic
development
of learning experiences. Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia
as tools to enhance instruction.

No comments yet

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: