Malcom Knowles merupakan orang yang dianggap pioner dalam memperkenalkan pembelajaran untuk orang dewasa.(

Ia menjelaskan mengapa pembelajar dewasa berbeda dengan pembelajar umumnya. Karena Knowles berasumsi bahwa :

  • The need to know — adult learners need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it.
  • Learner self-concept —adults need to be responsible for their own decisions and to be treated as capable of self-direction
  • Role of learners’ experience —adult learners have a variety of experiences of life which represent the richest resource for learning. These experiences are however imbued with bias and presupposition.
  • Readiness to learn —adults are ready to learn those things they need to know in order to cope effectively with life situations.
  • Orientation to learning —adults are motivated to learn to the extent that they perceive that it will help them perform tasks they confront in their life situations.
  • Sedangkan perbedaan androgogy dan pedagogy dapat dilihat pada daftar berikut ini:

    1. Demands of learning :

    Andragogy: Learner must balance life responsibilities with the demands of learning.

    Pedagogy: learner can devote more time to the demands of learning because responsibilities are minimal.

    2. Role of instructor :

    Androgogy : Learners are autonomous and self directed. Teachers guide the learners to their own knowledge rather than supplying them with facts.

    Pedagogy : Learners rely on the instructor to direct the learning. Fact based lecturing is often the mode of knowledge transmission.

    3. Life experiences :

    Androgogy : Learners have a tremendous amount of life experiences. They need to connect the learning to their knowledge base. They must recognize the value of the learning.

    Pedagogy : Learners are building a knowledge base and must be shown how their life experiences connect withthe present learning.

    4. Purpose for learning :

    Androgogy : Learners are goal oriented and know for whatpurpose they are learning new information

    Pedagogy: Learners often see no reason for taking a particular course. They just know they have to learn the information.

    5. Permanence of learning :

    Androgogy : Learning is self-initiated and tends to last a long time.
    Pedagogy: Learning is compulsory and tends to disappear shortly after instruction.



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